Next to UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, fluorescence is the most frequently used detection technique for biomolecular assays, and for trace analysis of many inorganic and organic molecules.

In the LOV format, right angle optical fiber configuration has been used in a suitable combination with light sources  (LED, Tungsten), and detectors (Hi Sensitivity Spectrophotometer or PMT)  and filters.

The LOV flow cell can contain liquids as shown here, or can be filled with beads as utilized in BI techniques (Chapter 3).

Since the flow cell can accommodate an additional  optical fiber, both fluorescence and absorbance can be simultaneously monitored. Most recently, fluorescence measurement was combined with voltammetry for study of live cells in LOV-BI format.

Fluorescence in LOV Format
2.3.7.