All electrochemical techniques benefit from automation in FI as well as in SI mode, as documented by a comprehensive review. (Ivaska 2008).
While voltammetry and conductimetry can easily be accommodated in an LOV flow cell, use of ion selective electrodes has been limited due to the dimensions and configuration of commercially available sensors, such as glass (pH) and solid crystal ISE electrodes.
Thus potentiometry in LOV format remains limited to the use of Pt, Ag and Ag halides and Ag sulphide and Ag/Hg electrodes. These are easily fabricated by cementing Pt or Ag wires into PEEK tubing (A) and by amalgamating Ag or converting silver into Ag halide.
The electrodes are mounted into the flow cell in the same way as optical fibers, by means of ferrules and fittings (B). Use of LOV format should not be viewed merely as an approach to miniaturization and automation. There are almost unlimited opportunities